珠三角大气成分观测站网
珠江三角洲大气成分观测站网的主要目标是监测温室气体、大气气溶胶、反应性痕量气体、常规气象要素、大气辐射、干湿沉降等大气成分要素的演变过程与特征。目前的观测重点是气溶胶的物理、化学与光学特性的主要参数:光学厚度、黑碳气溶胶、散射系数和吸收系数、单次散射反照率、气溶胶粒子谱、成分谱和质量浓度等。针对珠三角地区大气污染严重的问题,5A彩票网正在开展气溶胶光学特性、卫星遥感与应用、气溶胶对能见度、光化辐射、臭氧、灰霾与光化学烟雾的影响研究。更多大气成分对环境、天气和气候的影响有待于更进一步的研究。

珠江三角洲大气成分观测站网

珠江三角洲位于中国南部,是由广州,香港,佛山,东莞,深圳和澳门等城市组成的超级大城市群地区。由于人类活动和飞速城市化进程,该地区产生大量的大气污染物。为了更好地研究该区域大气污染物的特性,华南区域气象中心从2003年开始在该区域建设大气成分观测业务站网,该业务站网目前已包括一个主站和十二个子站,主站位于广州番禺南村镇大镇岗山。中国5A彩票网广州热带海洋气象研究所于2008年开始在主站建设大气物理与大气化学实验室。大气成分观测站网的主要目标是监测温室气体、大气气溶胶、反应性痕量气体、常规气象要素、大气辐射、干湿沉降等大气成分要素的演变过程与特征。目前的观测重点是气溶胶的物理、化学与光学特性的主要参数:光学厚度、黑碳气溶胶、散射系数和吸收系数、单次散射反照率、气溶胶粒子谱、成分谱和质量浓度等。针对珠三角地区大气污染严重的问题,5A彩票网正在开展气溶胶光学特性、卫星遥感与应用、气溶胶对能见度、光化辐射、臭氧、灰霾与光化学烟雾的影响研究。更多大气成分对环境、天气和气候的影响有待于更进一步的研究。在这里介绍2004年观测以来的一些基本情况和资料统计特征。


观测要素与站网布点

珠江三角洲大气成分观测站网包括一个主站与十二个子站,具有大量的观测仪器和多个观测项目:

  • 1)气溶胶光学/物理/化学特性
  • 2)气溶胶垂直廓线
  • 3)气态污染物
  • 4)光化辐射通量谱和紫外总辐射
  • 5)地表通量和辐射平衡
  • 6)温度,水汽和风廓线
  • 7)常规气象要素

The Observation Network for Atmospheric Composition Over Pearl River Delta

The Pearl River Delta (PRD) region is highly urbanized with a cluster of large cities located in the south of China, including Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Foshan, Dongguan,Shenzhen, and Macao. The rapid increase in the urbanization and human activities has important impacts on atmospheric aerosols and pollutants in this region. To better understand the characteristics of these pollutants, Regional Meteorological Center in South China has established an operational network of observation stations for measuring atmospheric components in the PRD region since 2003, which currently consists one main station and twelve sub-stations. The main station is located in Dazhengang mountain, Nancun Town, Panyu District in Guangzhou. Institute of Tropical and Marine Meteorology (ITMM)of China Meteorological Administration (CMA) established a laboratory for atmospheric physics and atmospheric chemistry at the main station in 2008. The main objectives of the observation is to monitor the evolution of the atmospheric components, including greenhouse gas, aerosols, trace gas, regular meteorological variables, atmospheric radiation, and dry and wet depositions. Currently, the measurement focuses on optical depth, black carbon, scattering and absorbing coefficients, single scattering albedo, aerosol particle spectrum, composition and mass concentration etc. Aiming at severe air pollution over PRD, researches on the characteristics of the aerosol optical properties, remote sensing and its application, the effects of aerosols on the visibility, actinic flux, ozone, haze and photochemical smog over the PRD region are being carried out. More researches on the effects of atmospheric components on the environment, weather and climate are expected. Some basic information and statistic features of observational data since 2004 at the stations are introduced here.


Observation covers

This network consists of one main station and twelve sub-stations over PRD, and a large set of instruments and measurements:

  • 1) Aerosol optical,physical and chemical properties
  • 2) Aerosol vertical profiles
  • 3) Gas phase pollutant
  • 4) Actinic flux spectrum and UV radiation
  • 5) Surface fluxes and radiation balance
  • 6) Temperature, water vapor and wind profiles
  • 7) Meteorological parameters

气溶胶光学特性监测系统
Aerosol optical properties monitoring system

 

气溶胶光学厚度
Aerosol optical depth (AOD)

 

AOD 可以用来表征大气中气溶胶柱含量。观测AOD的仪器有自动跟踪式的和手持式的太阳光度计(CE318,Cimel; MicroposII, Solar Light Co)。太阳光度计利用可见光和近红外波段的几个滤光片观测直接太阳辐射,并从中反演出AOD和其它变量(例如水汽柱含量和臭氧柱含量)。

AOD can be used to represent the aerosol loading in an atmospheric column. An automatic or hand-held sunphotometer (CE318,Cimel; MicroposII, Solar Light Co.) with several filters in visible and near infrared is capable of measuring direct solar irradiance in each band, and deriving the AOD and other variables (such as water vapor column and ozone column).

 

340nm and 550nm气溶胶光学厚度随季节变化
The seasonal variation of aerosol optical depth at 340nm and 550nm

 


气溶胶消光系数垂直廓线
Aerosol extinction coefficient vertical profile

微脉冲激光雷达(MPL-4B, Sigma Space Co.)用于测量527nm波长处的气溶胶垂直消光系数。同时,激光雷达资料可以用来反演其它5a彩票网是骗人的吗,例如大气边界层高度和云边界的演变等。

Aerosol vertical extinction coefficient at the wavelength of 527nm is measured using a Micro-pulse Lidar(MPL-4B, Sigma Space Co.). And other products, for example, atmospheric boundary layer height and cloud boundary, can be derived from the lidar data set.

 

激光雷达反演的边界层高度与消光系数垂直廓线
Boundary layer height and extinction coefficient vertical profile retrieved by Lidar

 


气溶胶吸收系数
Aerosol absorption coefficient

黑碳(BC)对辐射有强烈的吸收作用。利用黑碳仪(AE-31, Magee Sci.)测量370,470,520,590,660,880 and 950nm波长处的BC浓度。黑碳仪通过测量滤纸带上采集的气溶胶粒子的光衰减,利用光学分析法测量出黑碳的质量浓度,进而计算气溶胶吸收系数。

Light can be absorbed smallly especially by black carbon (BC). The BC concentration in atmosphere is measured at wavelengths of 370,470,520,590,660,880 and 950nm by the aethalometer (AE-31, Magee Sci.). The Aethalometer uses optical analysis to determine the mass concentration of BC particles collected from an air stream passing through a filter, and then calculates aerosol absorption coefficient.

 

黑碳气溶胶的季节变化,主站(左),番禺子站(右)
The seasonal variation of Black Carbon at the main station (L) and Panyu sub-sation (R)

 


气溶胶散射系数
Aerosol scattering coefficient

气溶胶对辐射有散射作用。气溶胶的散射系数的观测仪器是积分浊度计(M9003, Ecotech)。浊度计能对气溶胶的散射系数进行实时连续的观测。由于空气中含有颗粒物,浊度计连续地抽取空气,利用光学分析法能够实时地测量颗粒物对光的散射作用。

Light can be scattered by aerosol. The observation of aerosol scattering coefficient are made using an Integrating Nephelometer(M9003, Ecotech). The Nephelometer continuously and in real-time measures the light scattering in a sample of ambient air due to the presence of particulate matter using optical analysis.

 

番禺子站的气溶胶散射系数的月变化(左)和日变化(右)
The monthly (L) and diurnal (R) variation of aerosol scattering coefficient at the Panyu sub-sation

 


能见度
Visibility

气溶胶能够影响能见度,污染严重时,高浓度的气溶胶能引起低能见度事件。利用前向散射能见度仪(M6000, Belfort Ins.C.)测量能见度和消光系数。

Aerosols have important impacts on visibility. The high aerosol concentrations often produce low visibility events. The visibility range is measured with the forward scattering visibility sensor(M6000, Belfort Ins.C.). The light extinction coefficient and visibility can be output simultaneously.


气溶胶物理和化学特性的监测系统
Aerosol physical and chemical properties monitoring system

 

气溶胶粒子尺度谱分布
Aerosol size distribution

 

颗粒物监测仪(Grimm 180)利用光的散射5A彩票网对颗粒物进行测量。该仪器利用31个通道对直径在0.25-32μm之间的颗粒物进行测量。基于粒子密度的假设,可以实时计算PM10, PM2.5 和 PM1的质量浓度。

Counts of particulates that are with diameter between 0.25-32μm in 31 channels are measured by a dust monitor (Grimm 180) that uses light–scattering technology. PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 mass concentrations can be calculated simultaneously based on density assumption of particle.

 

主站的不同尺度颗粒物数浓度的日变化
The diurnal variation of particle number density at different size range at the main station

主站的气溶胶质量浓度的概率分布
The probability distribution of aerosol mass concentration at the main station

 

 

SMPS(TSI 3936)系统用于测量20-1000nm的气溶胶粒子。颗粒物先进入电迁移分选器按电迁移直径进行粒子分选,再进入凝结计数器进行个数测量。

The SMPS(TSI 3936) spectrometer is a system that measures the size distribution of aerosols in the size range from 20nm to 1000nm. Particles are classified with an differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and their concentration is measured with a condensation particle counter(CPC).

 


气溶胶吸湿增长特性
Hygroscopic properties of aerosols

HTDMA系统用于测量次微米粒子的吸湿增长特性,可得到粒子在不同相对湿度下的吸湿增长因子和物质含水量,并可用作推测气溶胶的化学组分和混合状态。

Hygroscopic properties of aerosols is measured by an Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer(HTDMA), which is used to determine the water uptake on sub-micrometer particles at substaturated conditions, and speculate the chemical composition and mixing state of aerosols.

 

主站的TDMA 拟合的归一化颗粒物质量浓度(上)和颗粒物数浓度谱(下)
Normalized aerosol mass concentration TDMA fit(T) and aerosol number density SMPS(B) at the main station

 


气溶胶质量分布
Aerosol mass distribution

震荡天平法颗粒物质量监测仪(TEOM-1405 Series)是基于滤膜实时测量气流中悬浮颗粒物质量。其原理是吸入周围的空气,以恒定的流速通过滤膜,同时不断利用震荡天平法测量滤膜的重量并近似实时测出颗粒物(PM10, PM2.5 和 PM1)的质量浓度。另外,该仪器还计算颗粒1小时、8小时、12小时和24小时内的平均质量浓度,可供选择存储。

The TEOM 1405 series Monitors are instruments that draw ambient air through filters at constant flow rate, continuously weighing the filter and calculating near real-time mass concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1. In addition, the instruments compute the 1-hour, 8-hour, 12-hour and 24-hour averages of the mass concentration for each type of particulate.

 

2010年PM2.5的逐日变化
The daily variation of PM2.5 in 2010

 


有机碳与元素碳成分分析
Analysis of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) compounds

热光法碳分析仪(DRI2001)根据有机碳(OC)和元素碳(EC)在不同温度下可选择性氧化,认为当样品暴露在有氦气的低温环境中时,挥发性有机物可以从样品中挥发出来,而元素碳不会被氧化和清除。根据此原理分析检测样品中的EC/OC浓度。

The DRI 2001 thermal/optical carbon analyzer is based on the preferential oxidation of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) compounds at different temperatures. It relies on the fact that organic compounds can be volatilized from the sample deposit in a helium (He) atmosphere at low temperatures, while elemental carbon is not oxidized and removed.

 

广东省5A彩票网采样的EC/OC分析结果
OC/EC mass concentration at Guangdong Provincial Meteorological Administration

 


水溶性成分分析
Analysis of aerosol water-soluble compositions

Monitor for AeRosols and GAses (MARGA ADI2080)是通过旋转液膜气蚀器和蒸汽喷射气溶胶收集器(螺旋式玻璃管)来分离并制成可溶性的气体和气溶胶样品溶液,基于液相色谱制造的全自动半连续测量气溶胶中可溶性离子成分(NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-)和气体(NH3, HNO2, HNO3, HCl, SO2)的在线监测系统。系统可连续获得每小时气体和气溶胶浓度的平均结果。MARGA包括采样系统和分析系统。

Monitor for AeRosols and GAses (MARGA ADI2080) is a film by Wet Rotating Denuder (WRD)and Steam Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC) to isolate and soluble gases and aerosols into the sample solution, all based on liquid chromatography,which is an automatic semi-continuous measurement of aerosol soluble ion composition (NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-) and gas (NH3, HNO2, HNO3, HCl, SO2) on-line monitoring system. This system, including the sampling system and analysis system, could continuous access average concentrations of gases and aerosols results per hour.     

 

主站的气体(左)和气溶胶(右)可溶性离子成分日变化
Diurnal variation of water-soluble composition of gas(L) and aerosol(R) at the main station

 


挥发性有机物在线色谱监测系统
VOCs online sampling system

AMA GC5000系统主要包括DIM200进样/校准模块、GC5000VOC和GC5000BTX监测模块。在完成样品富集、分离分析后,通过自动色谱和FID检测器可测量臭氧前体物(C2-C6范围的低沸点物种和C4-C12范围的高沸点物种)。

A GC system for continuous monitoring of the complete range of ozone precursor from C2-C12 can be configured by combining the DIM200, GC5000VOC and GC5000BTX. The measurement is based on the principle of adsorption of compounds on special materials in an enrichment tube and detection of the organic compounds with the help of a FID detector after separation on a capillary column of a GC.

 

2011年8月主站的VOC谱
Volatile Organic Compounds ( VOCs ) in August 2011 at the main station

 


光化辐射通量谱与光解速率和辐照度的观测
Actinic flux spectrum,photolysis rates and irradiance observation

METCON公司的光化学辐射通量观测仪利用快速单片集成电路5A彩票网以及对温度变化不敏感的陶制玻璃单色分光器实现稳定光谱的探测;通过512象素二极管阵列探测器实现了象素谱宽为0.85nm与光谱分辨率为2.1nm的高精度测量。可测量紫外低端谱UVB至可见光的太阳辐射光谱(280-700nm),并测量计算多种物质(J(O1D),J(NO2)、J(CHO)、J(HONO)、J(NO3)、etal)的光解速率,该仪器对研究城市或区域的光化学污染机制非常适用与重要。

This type of spectrometer (Mectcon) is capable of measuring irradiance, direct sun, actinic fluxes and photolysis rates form spectrally resolved data. It is based on a monolithic monochromator which has no moving parts. Made from ceramics/ glass, the monochromator has negligible sensitivity to temperature changes. It uses a 512 pixel diode array detector with a spatial resolution of ca 0.85 nm(pixeldistance) and an HWFH of ca. 2.1nm. Software supplied with the spectrometer records the spectral raw data as well as calculating the photolysis rates for J(O1D),J(CHO),J(NO2),J(HONO),and J(NO3) in real-time.

 

2011-11-26 15:00主站的光化辐射通量谱(左)与2011-12-14 主站的光解速率日变化(右)
Actinic flux Spectrum at 15:00 on Dec 26, 2011(L)and diurnal variation of photolysis rates on Dec 14,2011(R) at the main station

 


过氧乙酰硝酸酯自动监测
Automatic analyzer for peroxyacetyl nitrate ( PAN )

METCON公司的PAN粒子色谱分析仪是以气体作为流动相(载气),使用气相色谱原理监测空气中的PAN。当样品由微量注射器“注射”进样后被载气携带进入填充柱或毛细管色谱柱,通过自动色谱分析得到PAN的浓度。

The Automatic PAN Analyzer ( Metcon ) comprises gas chromatographic separation on capillary columns at sub-ambient temperature with electron capture detection. A hydrid system containing both oven modules and thus combining the advantage of a faster MPAN analysis with the use of CCL4 as internal standard can be provided upon special request.

 

2012-2-1主站的过氧乙酰硝酸酯的日变化
Diurnal variation of peroxyacetyl nitrate ( PAN) on Feb 1,2012 at the main station

 


膜采样
Filter sampler

利用安德森气溶胶分级采样器(Model 20-709, 9 stages, Andersen)和小流量便携式气溶胶采样器(Airmetrics)来采集气溶胶样品。 利用电子天平对样品称重,得到颗粒物的质量分布。利用离子色谱分析法和热光法对水溶性和含碳成分进行分析。

Andersen air sampler(Model 20-709, 9 stages, Andersen) and Mini Volume air sampler(Airmetrics) are used for collecting aerosol samples. Mass distribution of particulates is weighted by electronic balance. Water-soluble and carbonic composition are measured with the ion chromatographic method and thermal-optical method separately.

 

  Clean days   <td rowspan="12" "=""> Polluted days
Diameter (µm) Nov.4
μg/m3
Dec.9
μg/m3
Dec.16
μg/m3
Nov.10
μg/m3
Nov.14
μg/m3
Nov.16
μg/m3
Dec.17
μg/m3
9.0~10 9.35 5.90 6.86 15.89 13.81 15.84 18.05
5.8~9.0 12.15 12.53 9.31 20.13 12.66 30.10 21.43
4.7~5.8 7.48 0.74 5.39 10.59 8.05 23.76 4.51
3.3~4.7 7.48 0.74 6.86 14.83 17.26 25.35 6.77
2.1~3.3 5.61 2.21 6.37 19.07 19.56 20.60 13.54
1.1~2.1 7.48 12.53 7.84 26.48 27.61 25.35 29.33
0.65~1.1 14.95 8.11 10.78 22.24 26.46 33.27 23.69
0.43~0.65 17.76 10.32 5.39 24.36 23.01 26.93 32.71
0.08~0.43 7.48 8.11 7.84 22.24 2.30 22.18 14.67
Total concentration 89.71 61.16 66.67 175.84 150.71 223.39 164.70
2006年珠三角地区清洁过程和污染过程不同尺度气溶胶的质量浓度(μg/m3
Aerosol mass concentration(μg/m3) at different size range on clean and polluted days in 2006 over PRD region

 


气态污染物监测系统
Gas phase pollutant monitoring system

气态污染物监测系统由四台空气分析仪和一套标定仪器(Sabio 2010, Sabio 2020, Sabio 2030)组成。该套监测系统能测量痕量气体和反应性气体,包括:氮氧化物(NO/NO2/NOX, EC9841B), 二氧化硫(SO2, EC9850B), 一氧化碳(CO, EC9830B) 和臭氧(O3,EC9810B)。

Gas phase pollutant monitoring system consists of four air analyzers and a set of calibration instruments(Sabio 2010, Sabio 2020, Sabio 2030). The air analyzers measure the amount of trace gases and reactive gases such as nitrogen oxides(NO/NO2/NOX, EC9841B), sulfur dioxide(SO2, EC9850B), carbon monoxide (CO, EC9830B) and ozone(O3,EC9810B).

主站NOX 的概率分布
The probability distribution of NOx at the main station
主站SO2的概率分布
The probability distribution of SO2 at the main station
主站和番禺子站O3的概率分布
     The probability distribution of O3 at the main station and Panyu sub-station

地表通量和辐射收支监测系统
Eddy covariance system

作为超级城市群,珠三角地处热带季风严重影响地区。大气边界层的陆气过程和能量循环的主要特征与热通量、动量通量、物质通量和辐射收支有着密切的关系。热通量、动量通量、物质通量和辐射收支的监测对研究该地区的陆气过程和能量循环显得尤为重要。

It is very important to estimate the fluxes of momentum, heat and material and radiation budget to understand main characters of land-air processes and energy cycles in the atmosphere boundary over PRD, where is in a tropical monsoon region and with cities gathered in groups.

涡动相关系统
Filter sampler

利用三维超声风速温度测量仪(CSAT3, Campbell)和开路红外二氧化碳/水汽脉动仪(LiCOR 7500)测量通量,包括动量通量,潜热通量(LE),感热通量(H),和二氧化碳(CO2)通量等。

The fluxes of momentum, latent heat(LE) ,sensible heat(H) and carbon dioxide(CO2) are measured with a three-axe Ultra-sonic Anemometer(CSAT3, Campbell), and an opened path infrared CO2 and H2O analyzer(LiCOR 7500).

 

2004年5月至2005年6月番禺子站净辐射通量(),感热通量(),潜热通量(),土壤热流量(),和二氧化碳通量()月平均的日变化
Diurnal variation of monthly mean net radiation (), sensible heat flux (), latent heat flux (), soil heat flux (), and  flux () from May 2004 to July 2005 at the Panyu sub-station

 


大口径闪烁仪(X-LAS)
Large aperture acintillometer(X-LAS)

大口径闪烁仪可测量远至8km的水平平面内的空气折射指数参数。该仪器所观测到的资料可以订正卫星观测资料,同时也可以反演感热通量,对研究面上的能量收支有重要作用。

LAS can measure the path-averaged structure parameter of refractive index of air over horizontal path lengths from 0.25km to 8km. The sensible heat flux derived from LAS is used for energy balance study. It is also useful in the validation of satellite observation.


地表辐射收支观测系统
Surface radiation balance system

地表辐射收支观测系统的观测仪器有净辐射表(CM22, Kipp&Zonen),长波辐射表(CG4, Kipp&Zonen)和多波段太阳光度计(CE318, CIMEL)。利用两套净辐射表和长波辐射表同时测量向上和向下的长短波辐射。多波段太阳光度计用5个通道(440,670,870,940,1020nm)测量太阳直接短波辐射和天空亮度。

The instruments of this system consist of pyranometer(CM22, Kipp&Zonen), pyrgeometer(CG4, Kipp&Zonen), and multi-bands radiometer (CE318, CIMEL). Two pyranometers and two pyrgeometers measure simultaneously upward/downward short-wave and long-wave irradiance. The CE318 is capable of measuring direct solar irradiance and sky irradiance at 5 wavelengths of 440,670,870,940,1020nm.

 

2004年5月至2005年6月番禺子站向下短波辐射(DSR),向上短波辐射(USR), 向下长波辐射(DLR), 向上长波辐射(ULR),和地表反照率月平均的日变化
Diurnal variations of monthly mean downward shortwave radiation (DSR), upward shortwave radiation (USR), downward longwave radiation (DLR), upward longwave radiation (ULR), and surface albedo from May 2004 to July 2005 at the Panyu sub-station.

 


紫外辐射观测
UV radiation observation

利用紫外辐射表(UV-A-B-T, Kipp&Zonen; TUVR, Eppley Lab.) 测量地面紫外辐照度。

Surface ultraviolet irradiance measurement is measured with an UV radiometer(UV-A-B-T, Kipp&Zonen; TUVR, Eppley Lab.) .

 

逐月紫外辐射月平均的日变化 (295-385nm)
The monthly mean diurnal variation of UV (295-385nm)

 


温度,水汽和风廓线
Temperature, water vapor and wind profiles

连续实时的气温,湿度和风廓线的观测资料对于提高天气预报尤其临近预报的准确率起到至关重要的作用,同时对于研究混合层高度演变过程起到关键作用。

Continuous real-time upper air temperature, humidity and wind profiling is critical to the improving of accuracy and timeliness of weather nowcasts and forecasts, as well as understanding of the evolution of mixed layer height.

 

利用微波辐射计(TP/WVP3000, Radiometrics)可测量10km以下的温度,湿度和云水廓线,同时利用边界层风廓线雷达(WP-3000, SiChuang Electronic)测量3km以下的风廓线。

The measurement of temperature, humidity and cloud liquid profiles from surface to 10km height are made with a microwave radiometers (TP/WVP3000, Radiometrics), and that of wind profiles from surface to 3km height are carried out by a boundary wind profile radar.(WP-3000, SiChuang Electronic.)

 


气象观测
Meteorological observations

利用自动气象站(MAWS201, MAWS301, Vaisala)观测温度,湿度,气压,雨量和风速等地面气象要素。

Surface meteorological observations, such as temperature, relative humidity, pressure, rain, and wind are measured by an automatic weather system(MAWS201, MAWS301, Vaisala).


  • 联系方式CONTACT
  • 万齐林 研究员 (所 长)
  • Prof. Qilin Wan ( Director of ITMM,CMA )
  • 电话 Phone:020-87676176  传真 Fax:020-87775231
  • 电邮 Email:qlwan@grmc.gov.cn
  •  
  • 邓雪娇 研究员 (环境气象首席)
  • Prof. Xuejiao Deng (Section Head of Environmental Meteorology Research Group of ITMM, CMA )
  • 电话 Phone:020-87676029  传真 Fax:020-87775231
  • 电邮 Email:dxj@grmc.gov.cn
  •  
  • 吴  兑 研究员 (科学顾问)
  • Prof. Dui Wu (Scientific Adviser)
  • http://www.itmm.gov.cn
  • 中国5A彩票网广州热带海洋气象研究所
  • Institute of tropical and marine meteorology(ITMM), CMA ,Guangzhou
  • 团队成员:吴兑,邓雪娇,谭浩波,李菲,邓涛,麦博儒,刘显通,顾雪松
  • Research Group: Dui Wu, Xuejiao Deng, Haobo Tan, Fei Li, Tao Deng, Boru Mai, Xiantong Liu,Xuesong Gu